agroindustria

Se define Agroindustria como la rama de industrias que transforman los productos de la agricultura, ganadería, riqueza forestal y pesca, en productos elaborados. la clave es la energía utilizada en los procesos

Es necesario ampliar esta definición para incluir dos tipos de actividades relacionadas con las anteriores:

  • Procesos de selección de calidad, clasificación (por tamaño), embalaje-empaque y almacenamiento de la producción agrícola, a pesar que no haya transformación,
  • Transformaciones posteriores de los productos y subproductos obtenidos de la primera transformación de la materia prima agrícola.

Si llamamos tecnología al proceso por el cual el hombre usando herramientas produce el objeto deseado, queda por decir que no hay una tecnología sino varias que permiten llegar a ese mismo objetivo variando los factores de producción: aumentando el capital (herramientas) y disminuyendo la mano de obra (personal) o al revés.

Por ejemplo: Podemos hacer alimento balanceado teniendo como equipo una balanza romana, un molino de martillos y una mezcladora vertical de 1 Tn. Lo mismo puede hacer una fábrica dirigida por una computadora que maneja de acuerdo al programa todas las secciones, desde los tanques con los diferentes componentes hasta las diferentes mezclas para cargar en camiones tanques.
En resumen, hay diferentes tecnologías para obtener el mismo producto, en algunos casos con cierta diferencia de calidad.

En países industrializados, gracias a los subsidios a los agricultores, la agricultura y la agroindustria están desarrolladas tecnológicamente en la misma medida que las otras ramas de la industria. Si los salarios son de alrededor de 1500 U$S/mes, se justifica inversión en maquinaria para ahorrar mano de obra de forma muy diferente de la que corresponde a los salarios de 400 - 600 U$S/mes que se pagan en países en desarrollo.

Los principales fabricantes de equipo para la agroindustria, ubicados en los países industrializados, producen equipos cada vez más sofisticados adaptados al desarrollo tecnológico (electrónica, computación) de esos países, pero no al de los países en desarrollo. Solución parcial en los países en desarrollo a ese problema se obtiene:

  • Comprando plantas usadas reacondicionadas,
  • Fabricando en talleres locales copia de los equipos en uso en países desarrollados,
  • Creando modelos de proceso por lotes en lugar de los equipos de procesos continuos.

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